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Electroplating / Copper and brass plating

Pragogal Cu 210
alkaline cyanide-based copper plating and preplating bath

Pragogal Cu 210
alkaline cyanide-based copper plating and preplating bath

Pragogal Cu 210 is a complex-forming salt for the preparation of alkaline cyanide-based copper plating as well as preplating bath in both rack and barrel way of operation, the coatings deposited being semi-bright, soft, ductile and easy to be polished. The agent is suitable for copper plating of ferrous metals or, alternatively, steel substrates together with parts made of zinc alloys in one bath. The bath may be used for a copper preplating of steel parts and zinc alloys substrates just before further acid-based copper plating or cyanide-based copper plating processes of a higher deposition rate.

The bath is, furthermore, applicable for copper preplating of aluminium and its alloys by the zincate technique. The Pragogal Cu 221 additive is recommended for the deposition of semi-bright copper coatings with a fine-grained composition and, besides, is capable to relieve the interfacial stress between the substrate and the bath and cuts down the occurrence of inhomogeneities (pitting, porosity etc.) in the resulted copper coating, otherwise being initiated by coatings defects or/and impurities in the bath. The Pragogal Cu 221 even proves for copper plating of structurally inhomogeneous materials, such as grey cast iron.

The common consumption of the Pragogal Cu 221 is about 1 – 2 litres per 10 000 Ah.

For the start-up of 100 litres of the bath,it is necessary to add 16 kg complex-forming salt Pragogal Cu 210.

Running conditions of the bath:

Bath temperature 40 - 50 °C
Voltage 1,5 - 4 V
Current density 0,5 - 1,5 A/dm2
Bath filtration Occasionally through activated charcoal
Deposition rate 0,33 µm/min. at 1 A/dm2
Bath efficiency cca 75 %

Pragogal Cu 220
cyanide-based semi-bright copper electroplating bath

Pragogal Cu 220
cyanide-based semi-bright copper electroplating bath

Pragogal Cu 220 is a complex-forming salt for the preparation of alkaline cyanide-based copper electroplating bath for both rack and reversing barrel modes of plating. The coatings deposited are semi-bright, soft, ductile and easy to be polished. For the current reversal mode, the parts to be plated should be by turns connected as cathode for about 25 – 30 seconds and then as anode for 5 seconds, which enables the copper coatings to be deposited in higher thicknesses at higher current densities simultaneously. For the deposition of semi-bright coatings and their grain refinement, the Pragogal Cu 220 additive should be employed which, besides, will relieve the interfacial stress between the substrate and the bath and cuts down the occurrence of inhomogeneities (pitting, porosity etc.) in the resulted copper coating, otherwise being initiated by coatings defects or/and impurities in the bath. The Pragogal Cu 220 even proves for copper plating of structurally inhomogeneous materials, such as grey cast iron. The agent is suitable for copper plating of ferrous metals or parts made of zinc alloys.

The common consumption of the Pragogal Cu 220 is about 1 – 2 litres per 10 000 Ah.

The inividual bath components for 100 litres bath capacity should be as follows:

Component Plating of steel Plating of Zn Al alloy
     
Pragogal Cu 220 27 kg 27 kg
Caustic soda pure 1 kg -
Pragogal Cu 221 0,2 – 0,3 l


Running conditions of the bath:

Parameter Rack plating Barrel plating
Bath temperature (°C) 55 - 75 40 - 50
Voltage (V) 2 - 6 10 - 14
Current density (A/dm2) 0,5 - 2,5 1 - 2
Bath filtration Occasionally through activated charcoal  
Agitation Cathodic bar motion  
Deposition rate 0,7 µm/min at 2 A/dm2  
Bath efficiency cca 80 %  

Pragogal Cu 2500
acid-based decorative copper plating bath

Pragogal Cu 2500
acid-based decorative copper plating bath

Pragogal Cu 2500 is a multi-purpose acid copper plating bath for the deposition of highly bright coatings. The bath proves excellent levelling ability even at low current densities. The coatings may be used as an intermediate layer in both functional as well as decorative coatings systems of Cu-Ni-Cu type or as a final decorative coating for use in engineering and electronics industry. The bright coatings may be deposited at as low current densities as 0,1 A/dm2 which will add to the plating process of the parts of more complicated shapes, the bath levelling capability being influenced by the bath additives dosed without any bright change of the coatings resulted. The coatings resulted are soft, ductile and will also suit as a base under thicker copper plating coatings in the galvanoplastics.

Consumption of the additives for every 10 000 Ah:
Pragogal Cu 2501: 0,7 - 1,5 l (basic brightener)
Pragogal Cu 2502: 0,7 - 1,5 l (brightener)

The inividual bath components for 100 litres bath capacity should be as follows:

Component As both decorative and protective coating   For running bath temperature up to 35°C   As printed connections of eleconic circuits  
  Optimum Possible range Optimum Possible range Optimum Possible range
Cupric sulphate cryst. 20 kg 18 - 20,5 kg 17 kg 15 - 17,5 kg 9 kg 8 - 9,5 kg
Sulphuric acid pure (96-98%) 7 kg 6 -7,5 kg 10 kg 9 - 10,5 kg 18 kg 16,5 - 19 kg
Pragogal Cu 2501 0,2 l 0,1 - 0,3 l 0,2 l 0,1 - 0,3 l 0,3 l 0,2 - 0,35 l
Pragogal Cu 2502 0,2 l 0,1 - 0,3 l 0,2 l 0,1 - 0,3 l 0,2 l 0,1 - 0,3 l


Running conditions of the bath - rack plating:

Pracovní parametr As both decorative and protective coating   For running bath temperature up to 35°C   As printed connections of eleconic circuits
  Optimum Possible range Optimum Possible range Optimum Possible range
Cathodic current density 3 - 4 A/dm2 0,1 - 6 A/dm2 3 - 4 A/dm2 0,3 - 7 A/dm2 1 - 2 A/dm2 0,1 - 3 A/dm2
Anodic current density 2 A/dm2 1-2 A/dm2 2 A/dm2 1-2 A/dm2 1 A/dm2 0,5-1,A/dm2
Bath temperature 22-25 °C 18-30 °C 22-25 °C max. 35 °C 22-25 °C 20-28 °C
Agitation By air By air Cathodic bar motion


Running conditions of the bath - barrel plating:
As for barrel plating, the basic bath composition and current density 0,5 - 1,5 A/dm2 should be applied for the deposition of both decorative and protective coatings. However, in the case of high current loading above 1 A/litre, th basic bath composition for elevated temperatures should be preferred.

Pragogal Ms 610
cyanide-based brass plating bath

Pragogal Ms 610
cyanide-based brass plating bath

Pragogal Ms 610 is a cyanide-based brass plating bath for the deposition of functional or decorative brass coating and may be used for both rack and barrel mode of plating. The bath should be prepared by dissolution of 18 kg of the complex-forming agent Pragogal Ms 610 in 100 litres of water.

For the start-up of 100 litres of the bath,it is necessary to add 18 kg complex-forming salt Pragogal Ms 610.

Running conditions of the bath:

Bath temperature 20 - 30 °C
Current density 0,5 - 3 A/dm2 for rack plating

0,5 - 2 A/dm2 for barrel plating
Brass anodes Content Cu 67 - 70 %

Content Zn 30 - 33 %
The anodes are recommended to be basted with an inert and dry abrasive before their first use
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