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Chemikálie

Agents for electroplating processes and passivating of the coatings deposited

Přidat

Pragogal Zn 310, Zn 320
cyanide based zinc electroplating bath for both rack and barrel plating

Pragogal Zn 310, Zn 320
cyanide based zinc electroplating bath for both rack and barrel plating

Both Pragogal Zn 310 and Pragogal Zn 320 technologies are convenient for alkaline cyanide-based zinc electroplating processes. The Pragogal Zn 310 technology is predominantly suitable for the rack mode of plating while the Pragogal Zn 320 for the barrel one. Both technologies may be operated without any brighteners if dull or semi-bright zinc coatings are required. The Pragogal 304 brightener enables deposition of bright coatings at both rack and barrel mode of the bath running. The benefit of this process is reliable and economical operation, along with the superior quality of the coatings deposited.

The zinc plating baths should be prepared from the respective complex-forming salts Pragogal Zn 310 and Pragogal Zn 320 the compositions of which are different in the ratio zinc /sodium cyanide.

For the start-up of 100 litres of the bath it should be employed:

Bath component Rack plating Barrel plating
Pragogal Zn 310 (complex-forming salt) 24 kg -
Pragogal Zn 320 (complex-forming salt) - 27 kg
Pragogal Zn 304 (brightener) 0,2 l 0,2 l


Running conditions of the bath:

  Rack plating Barrel plating
Current density - cathodic 0,5 - 8 A/dm2 0,5 - 2 A/dm2
Current density - anodic 0,5 - 2 A/dm2 0,1 - 2 A/dm2
Bath temperature 18 - 30 °C 18 - 40 °C

 

The consumption of the Pragogal Zn 304 brightener will depend on the design and shape of the parts to be plated and practically varies within 0,5 – 2 litres for every 10000 Ah.

Pragogal Zn 372
weak acid-based zinc electroplating bath with enhanced temperature durability and suppressed foaming

Pragogal Zn 372
weak acid-based zinc electroplating bath with enhanced temperature durability and suppressed foaming

Weak acid zinc plating bath Pragogal Zn 372 is suitable for both rack as well as barrel plating. The bath must be put into operation from two separate parts – basic surfactant additive Pragogal Zn 371 and brightener Pragogal Zn 372. The coatings deposited are extremely bright within very broad range of current densities. The bath itself has a good levelling ability, good throwing power and excellent coverage ability and is very reliable and versatile in terms of its running and easy to be maintained by the operating staff. The surfactants employed are of high clouding point value (as much as 98oC at the fresh bath introduction) without salting out at higher bath concentrations or elevated temperatures. The necessary bath agitation may be ensured by either cathodic bar motion or by compressed air. The bath enables zinc plating without any problems even at higher current densities compared with if the bath is agitated by cathodic bar motion only. The outstanding feature of the bath is a better utilization of its effective components and brighteners than in common zinc plating bath and, consequently, more economical operation.

The consumption of the Pragogal Zn 372 brightener is ca. 2 – 5 litres per every 10 000 Ah.

The individual bath components for 100 litres bath capacity should be as follows:

Component Rack plating   Barrel plating
  Optimum Possible range Optimum Possible range
Zinc chloride 6 kg 5 - 9 kg 8 kg 5 - 9 kg
Potassium chloride 18 kg 18 - 21 kg 18 kg 18 - 21 kg
Boric acid 3 kg 2,5 - 3,5 kg 3 kg 2,5 - 3,5 kg
Sodium benzoate 0,5 kg 0,4 - 0,6 kg 0,5 kg 0,4 - 0,6 kg
Pragogal Zn 371 4 l 3,6 - 4,5 l 4 l 3,6 - 4,5 l
Pragogal Zn 372 0,3 l 0 - 0,5 l 0,25 l 0 - 0,4 l


Running conditions of the bath:

Bath parameter Rack plating   Barrel plating
  Optimum Possible range Optimum Rozmezí
Cahodic current density A/dm2 3 0,5 - 6 1 0,3 - 1,5
Anodic current density A/dm2 1,5 0,1 - 2,5 1,5 0,1 - 2,5
Voltage between the electrodes V   2 - 8   4 - 12
Bath temperature °C 22 15 - 35 25 15 - 40
pH value 5 4,5 - 5,4 4,8 4,5 - 5,4
Deposition rate 1 µm/min, při 4 A/dm2 12 µm/hod, při 1 A/dm2
Current loading of the bath A/l max. 1 max. 1
Cathode/anode surface ratio 1 : 2 1:1 - 1:2 1 : 1 1:1 - 1:2
If agitated by compressed air the consumption of the air per 1 m of the cathodic bar length is m3 per minute   0,1 - 0,2    
Agitation by cathodic bar motion (m/minute) 4 - 5 2 - 8    
Cathodic current output %   95 - 98   95 - 98

Pragogal Zn 367
weak acid zinc-plating bath suitable for the bath agitation by cathodic bar movement

Pragogal Zn 367
weak acid zinc-plating bath suitable for the bath agitation by cathodic bar movement

Weak acid zinc plating bath Pragogal Zn 367 is convenient for both rack and barrel plating in the containers where bath agitation by cathodic bar motion is possible. The bath must be put into operation from two separate parts – basic surfactant additive Pragogal Zn 366 and brightener Pragogal Zn 367. The zinc coatings deposited are highly bright within wide range of current densities and show very good ductility and low internal stress. The bath itself is of excellent levelling ability, good throwing power, outstanding coverage ability and is very reliable and versatile in terms of its running. The clouding point value of the surfactant component is around 48°C. The bath with the Pragogal Zn 367 brightener can be run as a sodium. potassium or ammonium chloride-based composition.

 

The consumption of the Pragolod 367 brightener is about 3 litres for every 10 000 Ah

 

The inividual bath components for 100 litres bath capacity should be as follows:

Component Electrolyte (Na+) Electrolyte K+) Electrolyte NH4+)
Zinc chloride 7,0 kg 7,0 kg 7,0 kg
Boric acid 3,0 kg 3,0 kg -
Sodium chloride 15,0 kg - -
Potassium chloride - 17,5 kg -
Ammonium chloride - - 18,0 kg
Sodium benzoate 0,5 kg 0,5 kg 0,5 kg
Pragogal Zn 366 surfactant 4,0 l 4,0 l 4,0 l
Pragogal Zn 367 brightener 0,3 l 0,3 l 0,3 l


Running conditions of the bath:

Bath parameter Rack plating   Barrel plating
  Optimum Possible range Optimum Possible range
Cahodic current density A/dm2 3 0,5 - 5 1 0,3 - 1,5
Anodic current density A/dm2 1,5 0,1 - 2,5 1,5 0,1 - 2,5
Voltage between the electrodes V   2 - 4   4 - 12
Bath temperature °C 22 15 - 35 25 15 - 35
pH value 4,8 4,5 - 5,4 4,8 4,5 - 5,4
Deposition rate 1 µm/min, při 4 A/dm2 12 µm/hod, při 1 A/dm2
Current loading of the bath A/l max. 1 max. 1
Cathode/anode surface ratio 1 : 2 1:1 - 1:2 1 : 1 1:1 - 1:2
Agitation by cathodic bar motion m/minute 4 - 5 2 - 8    
Cathodic current output %   95 - 98   95 - 98

Pragogal Zn 3400
up-to-date alkaline non-cyanide zinc-plating bath of a good levelling as well as coverage power

Pragogal Zn 3400
up-to-date alkaline non-cyanide zinc-plating bath of a good levelling as well as coverage power

It is an alkaline, non-cyanide and bright zinc-plating bath of a new generation, with low zinc concentration and high levelling as well as coverage power suitable for both rack and barrel way of plating. From the bath, the bright and easy-to-be chromated zinc coatings of good levelling power and within broad range of cathodic current densities are being deposited.

Consumption of additives for the charge of 10000 Ah passed trough:
Pragogal Zn 3401: 1,5 - 3,0 l (basic additive)
Pragogal Zn 3402: 0,7 - 2,0 l (brightener)
Pragogal Zn 3403: 0,8 - 1,0 l for every 10 kg caustic soda replenished (a masking additive)

The inividual bath components for 100 litres bath capacity should be as follows:

Component Rack plating   Barrel plating
  Optimum Possible range Optimum Possible range
Caustic soda pure 13 kg 12 - 14 kg 13,5 kg 12,5 - 15 kg
Zinc oxide pure 1,25 kg 1 - 1,4 kg 1,8 kg 1,6 - 1,9 kg
Pragogal Zn 3401 0,6 l 0,4 - 0,7 l 0,6 l 0,4 - 0,7 l
Pragogal Zn 3402 0,4 l 0,3 - 0,5 l 0,4 l 0,3 - 0,5 l
Pragogal Zn 3403 1 l 1 - 1,4 l 1 l 1 - 1,4 l

Pragogal Zn 3700
up-to-date weak acid-based zinc electroplating bath of increased operating performance

Pragogal Zn 3700
up-to-date weak acid-based zinc electroplating bath of increased operating performance

Weak acid zinc plating bath Pragogal Zn 3700 is suitable for both rack as well as barrel plating. The coatings deposited being extremely bright within broad range of current densities. The bath itself has a good levelling ability, good throwing power and excellent coverage ability and is very reliable and versatile in terms of its operation performance and ease to be maintained by the operating staff. The bath is started up from the basic surfactant Pragogal Zn 3701 and the brightener Pragogal Zn 3702. The new surfactants of enhanced clouding point (above 100°C) will enable the bath operation without the necessity of its auxiliary cooling and better utilization of the bath brighteners and, consequently, their lower consumptions. Besides, new additives employed in the bath are capable to push the maximum cathodic current densities towards the higher values and facilitate plating of more heterogeneous substrates, such as grey cast iron and high-strenght and hardened steels. The bath will reduce degree of the hydrogen embrittlement of the surface plated as well.
The consumption of the Pragogal Zn 3702 brightener is ca. 2 – 5 litres per every 10 000 Ah.

For the start-up of 100 litres of bath to be used as follows:

Component Rack plating Barrel plating
optimum range optimum range
Zinc chloride 7 kg 5 - 9 kg 8 kg 5 - 9 kg
Potassium chloride 18 kg 18 - 21 kg 18 kg 18 - 21 kg
Boric acid 3 kg 2,2 - 3,0 kg 3 kg 2,5 - 3,2 kg
Pragogal Zn 3701 4 l 3,0 - 4,5 l 4 l 3,0 - 4,5 l
Pragogal Zn 3702 0,3 l 0 - 0,5 l 0,25 l 0 - 0,4 l


Operating conditions of the bath

Bath parameter Rack plating   Barrel plating
  optimum range optimum range
Cahodic current density A/dm2 3 0,5 - 7 1 0,3 - 2
Anodic current density A/dm2 1,5 0,1 - 2,5 1,5 0,1 - 2,5
Plating vat voltage (V )   2 - 8   4 - 12
Bath temperature °C 22 15 - 45 25 15 - 45
pH value 5,0 4,5 - 5,4 4,8 4,5 - 5,4
Deposition rate 1 µm/min (4 A/dm2) 12 µm/h (1 A/dm2)
Bath current loading (A/l) max. 1,2 max. 1,2
Cathode/anode surface ratio 1 : 2 1 : 1 - 1 : 2 1 : 2 1 : 1 - 1 : 2
Air consumption per 1 m of the cathodic bar length if agitated by compressed air ( m3/min)   0,1 - 0,2    
Agitation by cathodic bar motion m/min. 4 - 5 2 - 8 - -
Cathodic current output   95 - 98%   95 - 98%

Pragogal Ni 1051
bright nickel plating bath with excellent levelling and coverage capability

Pragogal Ni 1051
bright nickel plating bath with excellent levelling and coverage capability

The nickel plating bath Pragogal Ni 1051 offers extremely bright nickel coatings of excellent throwing power even at a very low thickness. The coatings deposited are highly ductile and easy to be chromium overplated. The bath has a good throwing power as well as excellent coverage ability and features with durability against its incidental pollution with heavy metals, such as zinc and copper. The bath may be run for various relations of the basic components nickel sulphate and nickel chloride and for both rack and barrel modes of plating. The bath agitation can be carried out either by compressed air or by cathodic bar movement.

Consumptions of the additives for every 10 000 Ah:
Pragogal Ni 1051: 2,0 - 3,5 l (brightener)
Pragogal Ni 163: 0,2 - 0,4 l (basic component)
Pragogal Ni 164: 0,1 - 0,2 l (surfactant for the baths agitated by compressed air)
Pragogal Ni 165: 0,2 - 0,4 l (surfactant for the baths agitated by cathodic bar motion)

For the preparation of 100 litres of the Watt’s type bath, te following components should be used:

bath component for every 100 litres of the bath kg (litres) All-purpose bath made of the complex-forming salt All-purpose bath made of the components Bath with a higher chloride content Chloride- based bath
Pragogal Ni 120 kg 34 - - -
Nickel sulphate kg - 30 10 -
Nickel chloride kg 4 - 6 4 - 6 20 30
Boric acid kg - 4 4 4
Pragogal Ni 163 l 2 2 2 2
Pragogal Ni 1051 l 0,06 0,06 0,06 0,06
Pragogal Ni 164 l compressed air agitation 0,1 - 0,3 0,1 - 0,3 0,1 - 0,3 0,1 - 0,3
Pragogal Ni 165 l agitation by cathodic bar motion 0,1 - 0,4 0,1 - 0,4 0,1 - 0,4 0,1 - 0,4


Running conditions of the bath:

Bath parameter All-purpose bath with 60 g/l NiCl2   Bath with a higher chloride content
  Rack plating Barrel plating Rack plating Barrel plating
Cathodic current density A/dm2 0,1 - 10 0,2 - 2 0,1 - 15 0,2 - 3
Anodic current density A/dm2 1 - 4 1 - 4 1 - 4 1 - 4
Bath temperature °C 50 - 65 50 - 55 50 - 65 50 - 55
pH value 4,0 - 4,8 3,8 - 4,5 4,0 - 4,8 3,8 - 4,5

Pragogal Cu 210
alkaline cyanide-based copper plating and preplating bath

Pragogal Cu 210
alkaline cyanide-based copper plating and preplating bath

Pragogal Cu 210 is a complex-forming salt for the preparation of alkaline cyanide-based copper plating as well as preplating bath in both rack and barrel way of operation, the coatings deposited being semi-bright, soft, ductile and easy to be polished. The agent is suitable for copper plating of ferrous metals or, alternatively, steel substrates together with parts made of zinc alloys in one bath. The bath may be used for a copper preplating of steel parts and zinc alloys substrates just before further acid-based copper plating or cyanide-based copper plating processes of a higher deposition rate.

The bath is, furthermore, applicable for copper preplating of aluminium and its alloys by the zincate technique. The Pragogal Cu 221 additive is recommended for the deposition of semi-bright copper coatings with a fine-grained composition and, besides, is capable to relieve the interfacial stress between the substrate and the bath and cuts down the occurrence of inhomogeneities (pitting, porosity etc.) in the resulted copper coating, otherwise being initiated by coatings defects or/and impurities in the bath. The Pragogal Cu 221 even proves for copper plating of structurally inhomogeneous materials, such as grey cast iron.

The common consumption of the Pragogal Cu 221 is about 1 – 2 litres per 10 000 Ah.

For the start-up of 100 litres of the bath,it is necessary to add 16 kg complex-forming salt Pragogal Cu 210.

Running conditions of the bath:

Bath temperature 40 - 50 °C
Voltage 1,5 - 4 V
Current density 0,5 - 1,5 A/dm2
Bath filtration Occasionally through activated charcoal
Deposition rate 0,33 µm/min. at 1 A/dm2
Bath efficiency cca 75 %

Pragogal Cu 220
cyanide-based semi-bright copper electroplating bath

Pragogal Cu 220
cyanide-based semi-bright copper electroplating bath

Pragogal Cu 220 is a complex-forming salt for the preparation of alkaline cyanide-based copper electroplating bath for both rack and reversing barrel modes of plating. The coatings deposited are semi-bright, soft, ductile and easy to be polished. For the current reversal mode, the parts to be plated should be by turns connected as cathode for about 25 – 30 seconds and then as anode for 5 seconds, which enables the copper coatings to be deposited in higher thicknesses at higher current densities simultaneously. For the deposition of semi-bright coatings and their grain refinement, the Pragogal Cu 220 additive should be employed which, besides, will relieve the interfacial stress between the substrate and the bath and cuts down the occurrence of inhomogeneities (pitting, porosity etc.) in the resulted copper coating, otherwise being initiated by coatings defects or/and impurities in the bath. The Pragogal Cu 220 even proves for copper plating of structurally inhomogeneous materials, such as grey cast iron. The agent is suitable for copper plating of ferrous metals or parts made of zinc alloys.

The common consumption of the Pragogal Cu 220 is about 1 – 2 litres per 10 000 Ah.

The inividual bath components for 100 litres bath capacity should be as follows:

Component Plating of steel Plating of Zn Al alloy
     
Pragogal Cu 220 27 kg 27 kg
Caustic soda pure 1 kg -
Pragogal Cu 221 0,2 – 0,3 l


Running conditions of the bath:

Parameter Rack plating Barrel plating
Bath temperature (°C) 55 - 75 40 - 50
Voltage (V) 2 - 6 10 - 14
Current density (A/dm2) 0,5 - 2,5 1 - 2
Bath filtration Occasionally through activated charcoal  
Agitation Cathodic bar motion  
Deposition rate 0,7 µm/min at 2 A/dm2  
Bath efficiency cca 80 %  

Pragogal Cu 2500
acid-based decorative copper plating bath

Pragogal Cu 2500
acid-based decorative copper plating bath

Pragogal Cu 2500 is a multi-purpose acid copper plating bath for the deposition of highly bright coatings. The bath proves excellent levelling ability even at low current densities. The coatings may be used as an intermediate layer in both functional as well as decorative coatings systems of Cu-Ni-Cu type or as a final decorative coating for use in engineering and electronics industry. The bright coatings may be deposited at as low current densities as 0,1 A/dm2 which will add to the plating process of the parts of more complicated shapes, the bath levelling capability being influenced by the bath additives dosed without any bright change of the coatings resulted. The coatings resulted are soft, ductile and will also suit as a base under thicker copper plating coatings in the galvanoplastics.

Consumption of the additives for every 10 000 Ah:
Pragogal Cu 2501: 0,7 - 1,5 l (basic brightener)
Pragogal Cu 2502: 0,7 - 1,5 l (brightener)

The inividual bath components for 100 litres bath capacity should be as follows:

Component As both decorative and protective coating   For running bath temperature up to 35°C   As printed connections of eleconic circuits  
  Optimum Possible range Optimum Possible range Optimum Possible range
Cupric sulphate cryst. 20 kg 18 - 20,5 kg 17 kg 15 - 17,5 kg 9 kg 8 - 9,5 kg
Sulphuric acid pure (96-98%) 7 kg 6 -7,5 kg 10 kg 9 - 10,5 kg 18 kg 16,5 - 19 kg
Pragogal Cu 2501 0,2 l 0,1 - 0,3 l 0,2 l 0,1 - 0,3 l 0,3 l 0,2 - 0,35 l
Pragogal Cu 2502 0,2 l 0,1 - 0,3 l 0,2 l 0,1 - 0,3 l 0,2 l 0,1 - 0,3 l


Running conditions of the bath - rack plating:

Pracovní parametr As both decorative and protective coating   For running bath temperature up to 35°C   As printed connections of eleconic circuits
  Optimum Possible range Optimum Possible range Optimum Possible range
Cathodic current density 3 - 4 A/dm2 0,1 - 6 A/dm2 3 - 4 A/dm2 0,3 - 7 A/dm2 1 - 2 A/dm2 0,1 - 3 A/dm2
Anodic current density 2 A/dm2 1-2 A/dm2 2 A/dm2 1-2 A/dm2 1 A/dm2 0,5-1,A/dm2
Bath temperature 22-25 °C 18-30 °C 22-25 °C max. 35 °C 22-25 °C 20-28 °C
Agitation By air By air Cathodic bar motion


Running conditions of the bath - barrel plating:
As for barrel plating, the basic bath composition and current density 0,5 - 1,5 A/dm2 should be applied for the deposition of both decorative and protective coatings. However, in the case of high current loading above 1 A/litre, th basic bath composition for elevated temperatures should be preferred.

Pragogal Ms 610
cyanide-based brass plating bath

Pragogal Ms 610
cyanide-based brass plating bath

Pragogal Ms 610 is a cyanide-based brass plating bath for the deposition of functional or decorative brass coating and may be used for both rack and barrel mode of plating. The bath should be prepared by dissolution of 18 kg of the complex-forming agent Pragogal Ms 610 in 100 litres of water.

For the start-up of 100 litres of the bath,it is necessary to add 18 kg complex-forming salt Pragogal Ms 610.

Running conditions of the bath:

Bath temperature 20 - 30 °C
Current density 0,5 - 3 A/dm2 for rack plating

0,5 - 2 A/dm2 for barrel plating
Brass anodes Content Cu 67 - 70 %

Content Zn 30 - 33 %
The anodes are recommended to be basted with an inert and dry abrasive before their first use

Pragogal Ag 710
complex- forming salt for the preparation cyanide- based silver plating bath

Pragogal Ag 710
complex- forming salt for the preparation cyanide- based silver plating bath

It is a complex-forming salt for the preparation of cyanide-based silver electroplating bath suitable for both rack as well as barrel plating, the coatings deposited being dull. To achieve a sufficient adhesion of the coatings even to the less noble substrates, it is necessary for the wares to be preplated with a coating of a lower silver content at first. The bath should be started in the concentration of 100 g/litre for the rack plating and 150 g/litre for the barrel one.

Running conditions of the bath:

Bath parameter Rack plating Barrel plating
Cathodic current density 0,2 - 1,5 A/dm2 0,3 - 1 A/dm2
Voltage 0,5 - 1,5 V 8 - 15 V
Bath temperature 20 - 25 °C 20 - 30 °C
Bath filtration Occasionally
Anodes Pure silver
Cathode/anode surface ratio 1:1 1:1 to 3:1

Pragogal Ag 720
alkaline cyanide-based silver plating bath for the deposition of hard silver coatings

Pragogal Ag 720
alkaline cyanide-based silver plating bath for the deposition of hard silver coatings

It is an alkaline cyanide-based hard silver electroplating bath for both rack and barrel electroplating. The coating deposited is made of the alloy of both silver and antimony (1 – 3% Sb) with the hardness value HV20 = 170 – 240 kg/mm2. The coating itself is of semi-bright-to-bright appearance, of high corrosion durability, easy to be soldered and less liable to the touch-induced corrosion compared with dull plated coatings made of pure silver.

The bath should be prepared from the complex-forming salt Pragogal Ag 720 in concentration of 220 g/litre for the rack mode of plating and 260 g/litre for the barrel one, together with 25 – 35 millilitres/litre of the Pragogal Ag 721 brightener and 25 – 35 millilitres/litre of the Pragogal Ag 722 additive respectively.

Running conditions of the bath:

Bath parameter Rack plating Barrel plating
Cathodic current density 0,3 - 2,5 A/dm2 0,5 - 1,5 A/dm2
Voltage 0,5 - 4 V 8 - 15 V
Bath temperature 20 - 25 °C 20 - 30 °C
Bath filtration Occasionally
Anodes Pure silver
Cathode/anode surface ratio 1:1 1:1 to 3:1

Pragogal Ag 730
salt for the preparation preplating silver bath

Pragogal Ag 730
salt for the preparation preplating silver bath

It is a complex-forming salt for the preparation of silver preplating bath suitable for both rack as well as barrel mode of plating. The bath should be prepared by dissolution of 8 kg of the agent in 100 litres of water.

Running conditions of the bath:

Bath parameter Silver preplating
Bath temperature 18 - 25 °C
Cathodic current density 0,2 - 1 A/dm2
Voltage 2 - 3 V

Pragogal Sn 5500
acid sulphate-based tin electroplating bath

Pragogal Sn 5500
acid sulphate-based tin electroplating bath

Pragogal Sn 5500 is an acid sulphate-based tin electroplating bath capable of deposition of highly bright, ductile and pores-free tin coatings on the ferrous substrates and copper and its alloys. The bath is convenient for both rack as well as barrel plating processes. The coatings deposited are highly bright within very wide range of the cathodic current densities. easy to be soldered and of a very good throwing power and levelling ability, the bath feature being enhanced durability against adverse effect of chlorides.

Consumption of the bath additives per every 10 000 Ah:
Pragogal Sn 5501: 1,0 - 4,0 l (basic additive)
Pragogal Sn 5502: 1,0 - 4,0 l (brightener)

The inividual bath components for 100 litres bath capacity should be as follows:

Component Rack plating   Barrell plating
  Optimum Possible range Optimum Possible range
Tin sulphate pure 2,9 kg 2,7 - 3,4 kg 3,2 kg 2,9 - 3,5 kg
Sulphuric acid pure conc. 19 kg 18 - 21 kg 21 kg 19 - 22 kg
Pragogal Sn 5501 3,5 l 2 - 4 l 3,5 l 2,5 - 4 l
Pragogal Sn 5502 0,3 l 0,1 - 0,8 l 0,2 l 0,1 - 0,5 l


Running conditions of the bath:

Bath parameter Rack plating   Barrell plating
  Optimum Possible range Optimum Possible range
Cathodic current density A/dm2 2 0,5 - 5 0,8 0,3 - 1,2
Anodic current density A/dm2 1,5 0,1 - 2,5 1,5 0,1 - 2,5
voltage between the electrodes V   0 - 8   0 - 12
Bath temperature °C 22 15 - 25 22 15 - 25
Deposition ratet µm/min, at 2 A/dm2 cca 1
Current loading of the bath A/l Max. 0,4 Max. 0,8
Cathode/anode surface ratio 1 : 2 1:1 - 1:2 v 1:1 - 1:2
Agitation by cathodic bar motion m/minute 4 - 5 3 - 8 - -
Cathodic current output % 85 - 93 80 - 90

Pragogal Cr 870
low concentration chromium plating bath

Pragogal Cr 870
low concentration chromium plating bath

The Pragogal Cr 870 process represents an up-to-date low concentration chromium plating bath on the basis of two liquid catalysts, Pragogal Cr 871 and Pragogal Cr 872. The catalysts-based way of chromium plating enables easy deposition of a very bright decorative chromium coatings within a broad range of current densities. The bath is running within a wide range of chromic acid concentrations 150 – 250 g/litre without any other acids and other detrimental substances and, therefore, the bath maintenance is quite easy. The bath composition and advanced system of the catalysts facilitate the direct deposition of a decorative coating on copper and its alloys without any significant dissolution of the substrate.

The needed refilling amount of the catalysts Pragogal Cr 871 and Pragogal Cr 872 respectively is usually directly proportional to that of chromium trioxide. It should be refilled with both 50 – 60 millilitres of Pragogal Cr 871 and 60 millilitres of Pragogal Cr 872 respectively

The inividual bath components for 100 litres bath capacity should be as follows:

Component Optimum Recommended range
Chromium trioxide 20 kg 15,0 - 35,0 kg
Pragogal Cr 871 0,2 - 1,5 l it dependes on the bath temperature, higher concertation of the agents is necessary when higher bath temperature is used

at temperature interval 32 - 40 °C 5 - 10 ml Pragogal Cr 871 is added
Pragogal Cr 872 1,5 l
Pragogal Cr 892 20 - 100 ml na 100 l lázně podle potřeby (smáčedlo)


Operating conditions and parametres of the bath:

Cathodic current density 5 - 30 A/dm2
Anodic current density 1 - 10 A/dm2
Voltage 5 - 10 V
Bath temperature 35 - 40 °C
Density of the bath 19 °Bé at 210 g/l CrO3
Current output 18 - 25 %
Material of the anodes PbSn (6-7 % Sn) or, preferably PbSnAg (6-7 % Sn and 0,5 % Ag)
Surface of the anodes At least of twofold surface area of the parts to be plated

Pragokor Zn 25 K
liquid concentrate for the preparation of chromating baths without six-valence chromium content

Pragokor Zn 25 K
liquid concentrate for the preparation of chromating baths without six-valence chromium content

A liquid concentrate for the preparation of chromating baths without six-valence chromium content, for the passivation of zinc electroplated coatings deposited from weak acid and alkaline non-cyanide as well as cyanide zinc plating baths. After the application, a bright and bluish layer has been formed which strengthens the overall corrosion durability of zinc coatings. The chromating bath is able to run within broad range of operation times and, consequently, is convenient for the passivation in both automatic and hand-operated plating lines. The composition of the agent ensures the durability of the bath against its pollution with iron ions. The bath itself features severalfold increased life in comparison with the six-valence chromium-based baths..

Pragokor Zn 35 K
liquid concentrate for the preparation of chromating baths with low six-valence chromium content

Pragokor Zn 35 K
liquid concentrate for the preparation of chromating baths with low six-valence chromium content

A liquid concentrate for the preparation of the chromating bath with low content of six-valence chromium suitable for the passivation of zinc electroplated coatings deposited from weak acid, alkaline non-cyanide and alkaline cyanide-based baths. The bath creates a yellow and iridescent surface layer which will increase the overall corrosion durability of zinc coatings and is able to run within broad operation times. The chromate coating itself is much less liable to colour change at the transfer time between the chromating and the following operation and, therefore, is convenient for both automatic as well as hand-operated plating lines.

Pragokor Zn 35 KZ
liquid concentrate for the preparation of chromating baths with low six-valence chromium content, suitable for galvanized coatings

Pragokor Zn 35 KZ
liquid concentrate for the preparation of chromating baths with low six-valence chromium content, suitable for galvanized coatings

It is a liquid concentrate for the preparation of chromating baths with low content of six-valence chromium. The bath is convenient for the passivation of both zinc galvanized as well as zinc plated coatings deposited from weak acid, alkaline non-cyanide and alkaline cyanide baths. After the application on the zinc galvanized coating, a semi-bright yellow to yellow-brown layer, predominantly suitable to enhance corrosion durability and adhesion of following paints or powder coatings, will be created. If applied, on the other hand, on bright zinc electroplating coatings, a bright yellow iridescent layer appears on the surface to boost corrosion durability and improve appearance. After its drying out and ageing (within about 24 hours) the chromate will get hard without liability to touch and wear.

 

Pragokor Zn 62
two component-based agent for the preparation of chromating baths

Pragokor Zn 62
two component-based agent for the preparation of chromating baths

Two component-based agent Pragokor Zn 62 is suitable for the preparation of chromating baths for the passivation of zinc coatings deposited from weak acid, alkaline non-cyanide and alkaline cyanide-based baths. The chromate layer deposited on zinc coatings, either dull or bright, is of olive green or grey colour, and may be further coloured with organic dyes for other tones. As for the finish, the chromate coatings resulted resemble to organic paints. Besides, they add to the overall corrosion durability substantially. The bath itself is convenient for both automatic as well as hand-operated plating lines.

Pragokor Zn 51
two component-based agent for the preparation of chromating baths

Pragokor Zn 51
two component-based agent for the preparation of chromating baths

Two component-based agent PRAGOKOR Zn 51 is suitable for the preparation of chromating baths for the passivation of zinc coatings deposited from weak acid, alkaline non-cyanide and alkaline cyanide-based baths. The tone of the blackness of the chromate coating resulted, either dull or bright, will depend on the working conditions of the bath and quality of the zinc coating beneath. For the stable running of the chromating bath and formation of chromate coatings of superior quality, a brightening in about 0,5% solution of nitric acid in demineralised water, just before the chromating process, is necessary. The bath itself is convenient for both automatic as well as hand-operated plating lines.

Pragokor Zn 27 K
agent for a thick-layered passivation of zinc and its alloys coatings

Pragokor Zn 27 K
agent for a thick-layered passivation of zinc and its alloys coatings

Pragokor Zn 27 K is a chromating agent, without six-valence chromium content, for thick-layered passivation of zinc electroplated coatings being deposited from weak acid and alkaline non-cyanide as well as cyanide baths. At application, a bright iridescent layer of bluish-to-blue and green or blue and violet colour which substantially boosts corrosion durability of zinc coatings. Moreover, the passivation may be formed on zinc alloyed coatings of the ZnFe and ZnCo types. Besided the zinc plated coatings, the passivation of other zinc coatings is feasible as well, but with an inferior appearance. The final character of the chromating layer, i.e. hardness and durability against touch, are being stabilized after both drying out and ripening for about 24 hours. The surface weight of the passivation layer varies from 0,6 to 1,6 g/m2 according to the running conditions of the bath, especially bath temperature and operation time, the thickness within 100 – 300 nm being low enough to allow routine non-destructive ways of its measurement. Unlike the common chromates containing passivation baths, the thick-layered passivation is less susceptible to drying temperature and can even withstand temperatures above 120 °C.

Pragokor Inhibitor Ms 4
agent of high performance for passivation of copper, silver and their alloys

Pragokor Inhibitor Ms 4
agent of high performance for passivation of copper, silver and their alloys

The agent suitable predominantly for the passivation of copper and its alloys, i.e. brass and bronze, with active surface after pickling and degreasing. It is, moreover, capable to inhibit other metals and their alloys, such as silver, steel, cast iron, nickel, zinc and aluminium. It is very convenient for the temporary corrosion protection of metallic parts during their storage and assembly.

Pragokor Inhibitor 51
agent of high performance for both neutralizing and inhibition of steel, cast iron and copper alloys

Pragokor Inhibitor 51
agent of high performance for both neutralizing and inhibition of steel, cast iron and copper alloys

A low-foaming emulsion-based corrosion inhibitor without both nitrites and chromates suitable for the passivation of copper, brass, silver and nickel electroplated coatings. The agent is, furthermore, capable to protect steel electroplated substrates even on the spots or places without any coating or coated with inferior quality, e.g. pipes or hollows etc., and is also functioning very well as a non-oil based sealer on both phosphated as well as alkaline blackened substrates where, unlike other oil-based conservation agents, will not impede the following painting. It should be applied by immersion or spraying as the last operation, after the preceding rinse step, just before drying out. The parts passivated may be rinsed in demineralised water as the corrosion inhibitors contained become strongly bonded to the metallic surface and, therefore, the inhibition affect is being retained. The surface passivated is compatible with all types of solvent-based and powder paints. As for the water-based paints, the compatibility should be checked at first as the surface after passivation becomes hydrophobic a bit. The agent features a very high anticorrosion performance and is even functioning at a very low running concentration.

 

Group of the agents Pragokor Seal Cu, Fe and Zn comprises water-borne varnishes convenient predominantly for the finish coating, sealing and preservation of the metallic surfaces or conversion coatings. In particular cases, they may be used as an irremovable inter-machinery operations protection against corrosion. They create thin polymeric colourless and transparent layers bearing both versatile and specific corrosion inhibitors, hydrophobic and preservation additives and other modifying substances. The polymeric layer, together with corrosion inhibitors, will create both mechanical as well as chemisorption barrier against the adverse activity of corrosion stimulators. The Pragokor Seal agents should be applied by dipping technique only as the last technological operation just before drying, after the last rinsing step. They may be alternatively applied for the clean and dry surfaces, the surface must be, anyway, wettable with water.

Pragokor Seal Cu
agent for the surfaře corrosion protection of copper, brass and other metals

Pragokor Seal Cu
agent for the surfaře corrosion protection of copper, brass and other metals

Pragokor Seal Cu should be predominantly used for the protection of copper, brass, bronze and other metallic substrates or copper-based metallic coatings and, further, for sealing and impregnation of passivated or patinized copper and its alloys. It offers, furthermore, the protection of the surfaces against darkening and will seal the pores in copper plated coatings. The varnish layer will create the decorative finish on copper and its alloys to ensure the long-term appearance stability of the surface treated. By the Pragokor Seal Cu agent, the same appearance stability is also imparted to both silver and aluminium substrates and metallic coatings made of them.

Pragokor Seal Fe
agent for sealing and impregnation of phosphated coatings on steel

Pragokor Seal Fe
agent for sealing and impregnation of phosphated coatings on steel

Pragokor Seal Fe is of a more versatile use. It should be particularly used for sealing and impregnation of the phosphate coatings on steel and blackening coatings on steel or cast iron, for the protection of nickel plated coatings against darkening and for pores sealing in Ni-Cr and Cu-Ni-Cr plated coatings. Besides, it will create an irremovable inter-machinery operations protection of the steel parts previously alkaline degreased or degreased and consequently acid pickled. Due to its versatility, the agent is suitable for the anticorrosion protection of the machinery parts made of more metals.

Pragokor Seal Zn
agent for corrosion protection of chromated and phosphated coatings on zinc

Pragokor Seal Zn
agent for corrosion protection of chromated and phosphated coatings on zinc

Pragokor Seal Zn should be predominantly used for the protection of chromate and phosphate conversion coatings on zinc, zinc alloys or cadmium plated coatings and will impart the enhanced anticorrosion protection to the substrates like that. The corrosion durability of the chromate coatings on zinc, topcoated with Pragokor Seal Zn, in the neutral salt spray test, until the first spots of white rust, was proved to be increased by 200 – 600 hours as compared with the unprotected chromate. Furthermore, the coating of the agent is able to make the appearance of the chromate more uniform, the undesirable iridescence being avoided. The Pragokor Seal Zn varnish coating creates the decorative finish on chromates and will impart the long-term stability of the appearance to the surface treated.

Pragokor Seal Si
norganic-based sealing agent of the conversion coatings on zinc and aluminium

Pragokor Seal Si
norganic-based sealing agent of the conversion coatings on zinc and aluminium

Pragokor Seal Si is suitable for the sealing of the conversion both chromate and non-chromate-based passivating layers on zinc and zinc alloys coatings, aluminium and its alloys, passivated zinc casts etc. The agent will boost the anticorrosion performance of the conversion coatings substantially and, hence, impede the onset of the first corrosion marks on the substrate. It should be especially used after the chromating processes without six-valence chromium components and will enhance the entire corrosion durability of the parts treated in the neutral salt spray test by 200 – 400 hours. The agent may be alternatively used in the cases when sealing with more common water-based organic lacquers is not allowed as a loosened piece of such a paint might cause the clogging and failure of hydraulic braking or cooling circuits. The agent is water-based colloid solution of a slightly milk-like appearance containing nanoparticles of the silica sol which, at the application from the water solution, will deposit on the surface of the conversion coating forming a very thin colourless and transparent silica gel-based layer. After drying out and dehydration of the gel, the network of siloxane bonds will be created which will add to the overall anticorrosion performance of the coating the thickness of which varies within 0,3 – 3 µm. The gel-based coating will improve the adhesion of the subsequent paints to the substrate and, for the water-borne paints, their spreadability as well if applied by spraying. The agent must be stored within the temperatures +5 - 30 °C, freezing must be avoided!